SURVIVAL OF SPRING RELEASED, HAND REARED COMMON PHEASANTS (PHASIANUS COLCHICUS COLCHICUS L. 1758) AND CHUKAR PARTRIDGES (ALECTORIS CHUKARJ. E. GRAY, 1830) IN NATURAL HABITATS IN BULGARIA

Hristo Mihaylov, Gradimir Gruychev, Stoyan Stoyanov

Abstract


Survival and adaptation in the wild of the farm game birds are the most important indicators for the game breeding success. Spring release of hand-reared Common pheasants (Phasianuscolchicus L., 1758) and Chukar partridges (Alectorischukar Gray, 1830) is a powerful tool to increase the breeding potential and the growth rate of population. However, the process is complicated and depends to a large extent on the preservation and development of birds’ wild instincts, proper breeding and dispersal, habitat selection and the period of releasing.Survival of 20 Common pheasants and 49 Chukar partridges, spring released in natural habitats in Bulgaria, was estimated using radio-telemetry. Pheasants were released in March 2011 and Chukars – in February to May 2010.During the first eight weeks after release 80% of Pheasants and 83.67% of Chukars died. Chukars survival rates did not depend on the method of releasing. Pheasants and Chukars survival rates did not differ, but Pheasants dispersion was lower. The highest mortality rates occurred in the first 2 weeks after releasing.

Keywords


survival rates, radio telemetry, farm birds, pheasant, chukar partridge

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bagliacca, M., Falcini, F., Porrini, S., Zalli, F., Fronte, B. (2008) Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) hens of different origin. Dispersion and habitat use after release. Italian journal of animal Science, 7, 321-333.

Bernard-Laurent, A. (1989) Importance de la predation surune population de perdrix roch assieres (Alectoris graeca saxatilis x Alectoris rufa rufa) des Alpes Meridionales. Gibier Faunesauvadge, dec., 361-382.

Brittas, R., Marcstrom, V., Kenward, R., Karlbom, M. (1992) Survival and breeding success of reared and wild ring-necked pheasants. Journal of Wildlife Management,56,368-376.

Carvalho, J., Borralho, R. (1997) Crescimento populacional e successo reproductivo de duas populaces de perdizvermelha (Alectoris rufa) apósacçoes de ropovoamento. Revista de CiênciasAgrarias,20, 63-76.

Cox, D. and Oakes, D. (1984) Analysis of Survival Data, Chapman & Hall, London. 201 pp.

Crawley, M. (2013). The R Book. Second Edition, Wiley & Sons, UK. 1051 pp.

Csermely, D., Mainardi, D., Spano, S. (1984) Escape-reaction of captive young red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) reared with or without visual contact with man. Applied Animal Ethology, 11, 177-182.

Duarte, J., Farfán, M., Vargas, J. (2010) New data on mortality, home range, and dispersal of red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) released in a mountain range. European Journal of Wildlife Research. doi: 10.1007/s10344-010-0467-9.

Duarte, J., Vargas, J. (2004) Field interbreeding of released farm-reared red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) with wild ones. Game and Wildlife Science, 21, 55-61.

Kaplan L., Meier, P. (1958) Non-parametric estimation from incomplete observations. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 53, 457–481.

Krebs, C. J. (1999). Ecological Methodology, 2nd ed. Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers, Inc. 620 pp.

Leif, A. P. (1994)Survival and reproduction of wildand pen-rear ed ring-necked pheasanthens. Journal of Wildlife Management, 58, 501-506.

Nadal, J. (1992) Problemática de la spoblaciones de perdizroja, bases ecoetològic asparaten ezèxito con la s repoblaciones. La perdizroja. Gestiòn del habitat. Fundatiòn la Caixa, Ed. Aedos, Barcelona, pp. 87-100.

Paganin, M., Meneguz, P. (1992) Gut length of wild and reared rock partridges (Alectoris graeca): its role in release success. GibierFauneSauvage, 9, 709-715.

PetriniR.,Porrini, S., Papeschi, S. (1995) Differences in survival of wild translocated an dhand-reared pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) released in the wild. Quails and Pheasants. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Partridges (eds.M.G. Birkan, L.M. Smith, N.J. Aebischer, F.J. Purroy & P.A. Robertson), pp. 23-24. Game and Wildlife Science, 2, Office National de la Chasse, Paris.

Pinder, J., Wiener, J. & Smith, M. H. (1978) The Weibull distribution: a new method of summarizing survivorship data. Ecology, 59,175–179.

Pollock, K., Winterstein, S., Bunck, C., Curtis, P. (1989) Survival analysis in telemetry studies: the staggered entry design. Journal of Wildlife Management, 53, 7–15.

Putaala, A., Hissa, R. (1995) Effects of hand-rearing on physiology and anatomy in the grey partridge. Wildlife Biology, 1, 27-31.

R Core Team (2014) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. ISBN 3-900051-07-0, URL:http://www.R-project.org/.

Robertson, P.A. (1989) The effects of releasing hand reared birds on the British pheasant population. Pheasants in Asia (eds. D.A. Hill, P.J. Garson & D. Jenkins), pp. 233-236. World Pheasant Association, Reading, U.K.

Sage, R., Putaala, A., Pradell-Ruiz, V., Greenall, L., Woodburn, M., Draycott, R. (2003) Incubation success of released hand-reared pheasants Phasianus colchicus compared with wild ones. Wildlife Biology, 9, 179-184.

Sage, R.,Robertson, P., Wise, D. (2001) Survival and breeding success of two pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) strains released into the wild. Quails and Pheasants. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Partridges (eds.M.G. Birkan, L.M. Smith, N.J. Aebischer, F.J. Purroy & P.A. Robertson), pp. 331-340. Game and Wildlife Science, 18, Office National de la Chasse, Paris.

Skalski, J., Ryding, K. &Millspaugh, J. (2005) Wildlife Demography: Analysis of Sex, Age, and Count Data. Elsevier Science, San Diego, California. 656 pp.

Therneau, T. and Grambsch, P. (2000) Modeling SurvivalData: Extending the Cox Model. Springer, New York. ISBN 0-387-98784-3. 350 pp.

Therneau, T. (2014) A Package for Survival Analysis in S. R package version 2.37-7, URL: http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=survival.

Venturato E., Petrini, R., Scarselli, D., Cavallini, P. (2001) Fat ladies and lean girls: morphology influences survival and reproduction of released pen-reared pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Partridges, Lemesos, Cyprus. pp. 213-214.

Withey, J.C., Bloxton, T.D., Marzluff, J.M. (2001) Effects of tagging and location error in wildlife radiotelemetry studies. Radio tracking and animal populations (еds. J. Marzluff and J. Millspaugh), pp. 45-75. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15679/bjwr.v1i1.13

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 

ISSN: 2335-0113

Publisher: Visio Mundi Academic Media Group

Creative Commons License
This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.